This translation of Books I & II of CLAUDIUS PTOLEMYS 'GEOGRAPHIA' and its accompanying analytical commentary was written in April 1994 and is the copyright of Louis Francis, who hereby asserts his rights to be identified as the author and translator of the work herein. It has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 and subsequent amendments.

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Copyright Louis Francis 1994

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(NB. A claim by Princeton University Publishing for a new book on Ptolemy's Geographia challenged this copyright.

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A translation into English of Ptolemy's Geographia Books I & II, which contain a discussion of the art of mapmaking and an exhaustive description of the northern Roman Empire. It allows us to see not only the region through Ptolemy's eyes in the second century AD., but also the view of the cartographer Marinus, of unknown date, but almost certainly well before the occupation of Britain in 43AD



Click here for 1.THEORY............. Click here for relevant COMMENTARY

Click here for 2.PRACTICE............ Click here for relevant COMMENTARY

Click here for 3.REPRESENTATION..... Click here for relevant COMMENTARY


Click here for PROLOGUE - HIBERNIA - ALBION......Click here for relevant COMMENTARY

Click here for HISPANIA all provinces......Click here for relevant COMMENTARY.

Click here for GAUL all provinces......Click here for relevant COMMENTARY

Click here for GREATER GERMANIA......Click here for relevant COMMENTARY/a>


Click here for ENVOI